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  • A

  • Accommodating (conflict): Conflict management style (from the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model) where you occasionally make concessions to preserve the relationship. Best for building goodwill now in hopes of gaining more later.

  • Achievement vs. Ascription: Trompenaars cultural dimension. How people view status/position.
    Achievement = Value performance (you are what you do) as a person's "worth" or status
    Ascription = Value title/position/power as a person's "worth" or status

  • Affective trust: "Trust from the heart" or trust from building a relationship with someone (emotional closeness, empathy, personal connection).

  • Ascription: See "Achievement vs. Ascription"

  • Asynchronous: Happening at different times. In this course, refers to when communication happens when using a communication tool.

  • Audio conferencing: Synchronous communication tool where people communicate verbally only (often by phone or VoIP). Best when communication and feedback styles are similar and participants are comfortable with the language spoken. Easy to implement and most people are already comfortable using it.

  • Autonomous leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone values personal initiative, independence, and individualism.

  • Avoiding (conflict): Conflict management style (from the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model) where you prefer someone else takes the lead in resolving the conflict. Best when you have little influence or the conflict is of little consequence.

  • B

  • Bribery: Offering, promising, accepting, or soliciting money or some other reward in exchange for an action which is illegal, unethical, or a breach of trust (definition adapted from Transparency International).

  • C

  • Calendar scheduling: Asynchronous communication tool that allows participants to coordinate the team's work schedules and meeting times. Can integrate with project management tools. Cultural differences in calendar visibility and ability to schedule something on others' calendars.

  • Centralized structure: All team members report to a central project manager, who performs all coordination of the planning, execution, and control of the tasks. Best when complexity is low or local teams can successfully work independently.

  • Charismatic leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone inspires and expects high performance from others based on firmly held values.

  • Cognitive CQ: Cultural intelligence "from the head." Obtaining cultural knowledge through education/training or conscious observation of cultures.

  • Cognitive trust: "Trust from the head" or trust built from seeing/experiencing someone's skills, accomplishments, and reliability (confidence in their tasks).

  • Collaborating (conflict): Conflict management style (from the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model) where you seek other people's perspectives to help resolve the conflict. Best when you want to improve difficult relationships, build trust, or to gain consensus on resolving the problem.

  • Collectivism: See "Individualism (to Collectivism)"

  • Collusion: A secret agreement between parties to commit actions aimed to deceive or commit fraud with the objective of illicit financial gain (definition adapted from Transparency International).

  • Common good approach: Approach to ethics/source of ethical standard where our actions should contribute to the common good (respect and compassion for all others, especially the vulnerable).

  • Communicating: Meyer cultural dimension. How people communicate.
    Low-Context = Communication is simple and explicit, words are interpreted exactly as spoken, confirmation and repetition are helpful
    High-Context = Communication is nuanced and layered, uses non-verbal communication to give meaning, much is left unsaid, recaps are unnecessary

  • Communication Channels Diagram: A drawing where you connect lines between people on your project that share common elements such as location, language, and if they have worked together. Used to help find weak communication channels so you can pro-actively find ways to strengthen them.

  • Communication Plan: Documents the information that needs to be shared about the project, how often it will be shared, who it is shared with, the method used to share, and who's responsible for preparing and sharing that communication.

  • Communitarianism: See "Individualism vs. Communitarianism"

  • Competing (conflict): Conflict management style (from the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model) where you seek to change the other party's viewpoint by using logical arguments. Best when the interest of your organization is at stake or you need to take an assertive defensive position.

  • Compromising (conflict): Conflict management style (from the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model) where you find a positive for both parties. Best when viewpoints are drastic opposites, when you will not lose much by making concessions, or when resolution needs to happen quickly.

  • Conflict of interest: When your actions benefit yourself or an organization to which you owe a duty of loyalty, while also harming another organization to which you also owe a duty of loyalty.

  • Contextual intelligence (CI): The ability to understand the limits of our knowledge and adapt the knowledge and skills we have to different situations and environments. Understanding the full context of the situation, to make informed decisions to meet goals.

  • Corporate/Executive PMO: Provides a portfolio management function and project management support for the entire organization (all locations). Reports to an executive or other high-level manager.

  • Corruption: "The abuse of trusted power for private gain" (definition from Transparency International).

  • Cultural intelligence (CQ): The ability to interpret someone's unfamiliar gestures the way that person's culture would, in a natural fashion (i.e. without resorting to analytical tools or "thinking on your feet"). The ability to identify cultural context (of self and others) to take efficient, respectful actions.

  • Cultural Intelligence Framework: A framework by Mia Moua for building and using cultural intelligence. Start by acquiring knowledge about cultures, then build your strategic thinking by applying knowledge to unfamiliar situations. Next, contemplate your motivation (reflect on your interest and drive) to work through cultural situations. Finally, adapt and act to apply your cultural knowledge to what you want to achieve strategically.

  • Cultural practices: The parts of culture that are visible when people interact (communication conventions, symbols, appropriate behavior/etiquette, rituals).

  • Cultural values: The invisible part of culture. Values and beliefs drive the styles and preferences of social and professional life.

  • Culture: The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, conventions, and practices that characterizes a group.

  • D

  • Deciding: Meyer cultural dimension. How people expect decisions to be made.
    Consensual = Decisions made by group consensus
    Top-Down = Decisions made by one person (usually the boss)

  • Diffuse: See "Specific vs. Diffuse"

  • Diplomatic leader: Leadership style with nuanced, sophisticated communication skills and the ability to "read the air." They keep feedback constructive and caring.

  • Direct (coaching): Coaching technique for low skill and low motivation. Build skills and confidence by explaining, supervising progress, and praising.

  • Direct/Indirect Feedback: See "Evaluating"

  • Disagreeing: Meyer cultural dimension. How people view disagreement.
    Confrontational = Comfortable with public disagreement, enjoys debate
    Avoids Confrontation = Disagreeing publicly is a negative thing

  • Dispersed structure: Most team members report to local coordinators, who in turn report to a project manager. Local coordinators are responsible for execution and control of their location's tasks. Best when project complexity is high or local knowledge is critical.

  • Downgrader: Wording used to soften/down play disagreement, such as "maybe" or "a little bit."

  • E

  • Electronic chat (instant messaging): Synchronous communication tool where text is typed in a group chat window. Chat conversations can be saved as text files. Often informal. Best with limited participants, for established teams, and where people are fluent in the language.

  • Email: Asynchronous communication tool where text communication is sent, sometimes with documents attached. Allows multiple recipients and is easy to forward for wider distribution. Best for established teams or where there is an agreed-upon etiquette for use.

  • Embezzlement: Using funds and/or goods you have been entrusted with for personal enrichment or other activities they were not intended for (definition adapted from Transparency International).

  • Emotional: See "Neutral vs. Emotional"

  • Empower (coaching): Coaching technique for high skill and high motivation. Don't over manage. Do delegate tasks and collaborate on decisions.

  • Ethics: "Standards of behavior that tell us how people should act in the many situations in which they find themselves in" (definition from Markkula Center).

  • Evaluating: Meyer cultural dimension. Relates to how feedback is given.
    Direct Negative Feedback = Prefer direct, frank criticism
    Indirect Negative Feedback = Prefer discreet, indirect criticism

  • Extortion: Using a position of power or knowledge to demand (or threaten) cooperation or compensation.

  • F

  • Face: A person's public image in social contexts (as in, "saving face," "losing face").

  • Fairness (justice) approach: Approach to ethics/source of ethical standard where ethical actions treat all people equally, or if unequally, then fairly based on some standard that is defensible.

  • Fairness standard: PMI Code of Ethics standard. Our duty to make decisions and act impartially and objectively (free from self interest, prejudice, and favoritism).

  • Feedback sandwich: American technique of coaching, starting with something positive or praise, proceeding with the negative feedback, and ending with another praise. Will not work for cultures who favor direct feedback since the 2 praises and 1 negative will be taken literally (i.e. more good than bad).

  • Feminine: See "Gender Differentiation"

  • Functional PMO: Groups the prioritization and support of projects by functional area or division, such as banking systems or information technology. Reports to a functional manager.

  • G

  • Gender Differentiation: Also known as Masculinity to Femininity. Hofstede cultural dimension. Measures if society is driven by competition or caring for others.
    Low Differentiation/Feminine = value modesty, quality of life
    High Differentiation/Masculine = value control, assertiveness, material success

  • Global project: A temporary endeavor, delivered by a project team located in more than one country and from more than one organization, undertaken to create a unique product or service. (adapted from PMI definition)

  • Global Project Management Framework: A flexible set of recommendations that can have a positive influence on the performance of global projects. The five knowledge areas are global teams, global communication, global organizations, collaborative tools, and collaborative techniques. Introduced by Jean Binder.

  • Governance: Process of reviewing performance, ensuring value will be achieved, ensuring goals and objectives will be achieved, resolving escalated risks and issues, providing key decision making for changes, and ensuring stakeholder satisfaction. Completed by a Governance Board or Steering Committee. Sometimes facilitated by a PMO.

  • Groupware: The collection of electronic collaboration options available to a virtual team (from Mastering Virtual Teams).

  • Guide (coaching): Coaching technique for high skill and low motivation. Identify barriers and motivators. Encourage independent actions while tolerating early mistakes.

  • H

  • Honesty standard: PMI Code of Ethics standard. Our duty to understand the truth and act in a truthful manner both in our communications and in our conduct.

  • Humane-oriented leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone is supportive, considerate, compassionate, altruistic, and generous.

  • Individualism (to Collectivism): Hofstede cultural dimension. Relative value of the individual compared to the collectivity/group.
    Collectivistic = value group achievements and consensus
    Individualistic = value personal achievements and choice

  • I

  • Individualism vs. Communitarianism: Trompenaars cultural dimension. Individual versus group.
    Individualism = value personal freedom and achievement
    Communitarianism = value group loyalty and achievement

  • Indulgence: Hofstede cultural dimension. How people feel about fulfilling basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun.
    Indulgence = relatively free gratification of needs and wishes, leisure is important
    Restraint = regulate gratification of needs by strict social norms, leisure is less important

  • Information richness: The amount and variety of information flowing through the communication media.

  • Internal Direction vs. Outer Direction: Trompenaars cultural dimension. How people relate to their environment.
    Inner/Internal Direction = Work to change situation, person controls environment
    Outer Direction = Work with situation, avoid conflict, environment controls person

  • J

  • K

  • Kiss up/kick down leader: Leadership style that is submissive to superiors and dominating to subordinates. This is a "dark side tendency" more likely to emerge in very hierarchical organizations or where rigid code of behavior is the norm.

  • L

  • Leadership: "The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members" (definition from House et al.).

  • Leading: Meyer cultural dimension. Relates to how people view leaders and authority figures.
    Egalitarian = Power distributed equally, similar to low power distance of Hofstede
    Hierarchical = Defers to authority figures, similar to high power distance of Hofstede

  • Linear-active culture: Task oriented, highly organized planners. Communication focused on facts/data, plans/schedules, clarification/confirmation, top-down decisions.

  • Long Term Orientation: Hofstede cultural dimension. How people maintain links to past while dealing with present and future challenges.
    Short Term = personal stability, reputation, respect tradition
    Long Term = persistence, thrift, defer to status

  • M

  • Masculine: See "Gender Differentiation"

  • Motivational CQ: Cultural intelligence "from the head." Your enthusiasm and perseverance in navigating difficult cultural situations. Ability to reflect and try again.

  • Multi-active culture: People-oriented, loquacious communicators. Communication focused on informing all stakeholders, emotions, people as influencers.

  • N

  • Nepotism: Favoritism based on acquaintances and familiar relationships - someone gets a job or favor because they are a family member or friend, not because they are qualified or deserving (definition adapted from Transparency International).

  • Neutral vs. Emotional: Trompenaars cultural dimension. How people express emotions.
    Neutral = Hide emotions, reason influences action
    Emotional = Express emotions, emotions build relationships

  • O

  • Opportunistic leader: Leadership style of risk takers who are flexible, creative, and thrive on ambiguity.

  • Organizational Change Management (OCM): A managed approach to "transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired future state" (definition from John P. Kotter). Focused on the "people side" of change initiatives. Process steps are: Develop a desired state vision, Plan the organization transition, Execute the transition plan.

  • Outer Direction: See "Internal Direction vs. Outer Direction"

  • P

  • Participative leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone involves others in making and implementing decisions.

  • Particularism: See "Universalism vs. Particularism"

  • Passive-aggressive leader: Leadership style that pretends to cooperate while secretly being resistant. This is a "dark side tendency" more likely to emerge when people are forced to act without their consent/buy-in.

  • Permanence: The degree to which the technology is capable of creating a historical record.

  • Persuading: Meyer cultural dimension. How people convince others or present their reasoning.
    Principles-First = Lead with general principles/data first to build conclusions or recommendations (deductive reasoning)
    Applications-First = Lead with examples and recommendations, then add general principles/data to support if needed (inductive reasoning)

  • Physical CQ: Cultural intelligence "of the body." Learning about actions, demeanor, and gestures of cultures. Often learned without realizing it.

  • Power Distance: Hofstede cultural dimension. Measures how people handle inequality within a group.
    Low = egalitarian, questions authority, distribute power, status differences are of little importance
    High = accepts inequality, avoids disagreeing with authority, defers to superiors, status differences shape interactions

  • Project: A "temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result." (definition from PMI)

  • Project Management Office (PMO): Provide support to the projects and Project Managers within an organization. Common functions include sharing best practices, coaching and education, development of standards and methodologies, and assisting with project selection. Must align to business plan and demonstrate value.

  • Q

  • R

  • Re-active culture: Introverted, respect-oriented listeners. Communication focused on formal authority, careful communication, use of diagrams and "big picture" information.

  • Read the air: To pick up on the communication that is unsaid (non-verbal communication). A translation of the Japanese phrase "Kuuki Yomenai" (someone unable to read the air).

  • Regional PMO: Groups the prioritization and support of projects by geographical, cultural, or language affinity.

  • Respect standard: PMI Code of Ethics standard. Our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us.

  • Responsibility standard: PMI Code of Ethics standard. We take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences that result.

  • Rights approach: Approach to ethics/source of ethical standard where the ethical action is the one that best respects the moral rights of those affected.

  • S

  • Scheduling: Meyer cultural dimension. Similar to Trompenaars' Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time.
    Linear Time = Schedules are an agreed-to plan
    Flexible Time = Schedules are suggestions.

  • Self-protective leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone ensures safety and security through status enhancement and face-saving.

  • Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time: Trompenaars cultural dimension. How people view and manage time.
    Sequential = time is linear, value planning, schedules, punctuality
    Synchronous = time is interwoven, plans are flexible

  • Social presence: The degree to which the technology facilitates a personal connection with others.

  • Specific vs. Diffuse: Trompenaars cultural dimension. How far people get involved in work relationships.
    Specific = Keep work and personal lives separate
    Diffuse = Relationships are vital for successful work

  • Stakeholder: People or groups who will use or benefit from the project, provide resources to the project, participate in the project, who are impacted by the project, or are otherwise interested in the performance of the project.

  • Stakeholder Commitment Framework (Management Process): A process by Bill McElroy and Chris Mills to evolve stakeholders from ignorance to commitment. Includes the levels of Ignorance, Awareness, Understanding, Support, Involvement, Commitment.

  • Stereotype: A standardized mental picture that represents an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude, or uncritical judgment. Disrespectful and limiting.

  • Straight-shooting leader: Leadership style that is task oriented. They give direct feedback and confronts issues in a straightforward manner.

  • Support (coaching): Coaching technique for low skill and high motivation. Identify skills gaps and set a vision.

  • Symbolic meaning: Meaning implied by the use of the technology.

  • Synchronized leader: Leadership style valued for prudent/linear actions, following prescribed processes, and seeking consensus and authorization in decisions.

  • Synchronous: Happening at the same time. In this course, refers to when communication happens when using a communication tool.

  • Synchronous Time (dimension): See "Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time"

  • T

  • Tax evasion: "Illegal underpayment of taxes, usually by deliberately making a false declaration or no declaration to tax authorities" (definition from Transparency International).

  • Team-oriented leader: Leadership attribute/behavior where someone is focused on effective team building and implementation of a common goal.

  • Thick skin: The ability to not easily be hurt by criticism.

  • Trust: Reliability, or believing someone will do what is expected. Perception of honesty, fairness, benevolence, competence, shared values.

  • Trusting: Meyer cultural dimension. How people build trust.
    Task-Based ="Trust from the head", trust is built by doing good work
    Relationship-Based = "Trust from the heart", trust is built from personal connections

  • U

  • Uncertainty Avoidance: Hofstede cultural dimension. Ability to deal with change, risk, ambiguity.
    Low = comfortable with ambiguity, flexible
    High = favor predictability, rules, planning

  • Universalism vs. Particularism: Trompenaars cultural dimension. Rules versus Relationships.
    Universalism = Laws, rules, values, obligations
    Particularism = Each circumstance/relationship determines the rules

  • Upgrader: Wording used to strengthen/amplify disagreement, such as "completely" or "absolutely."

  • Utilitarian approach: Approach to ethics/source of ethical standard where you provide the greatest balance of good over harm.

  • V

  • Video conferencing: Synchronous communication tool where participants can see and hear others through video. Best when more information richness and social presence are needed than audio. Good for newly formed teams.

  • Virtue approach: Approach to ethics/source of ethical standard where ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain virtues that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character.

  • W

  • Web conferencing: Synchronous communication tool that combines electronic chat and document sharing/electronic whiteboard/desktop sharing, often with an audio conference. Can be recorded and distributed. Best for collaborating on documents and other information-rich meetings. Also includes tools like Google Docs.

  • Wikis and web pages: Asynchronous communication tool where there is a shared space for display and editing of documents, posting of messages and ideas, and sharing of information. Useful for creating data repositories for future projects.

  • Workflow application: Asynchronous. Allows you to design and operate repetitive business processes that involve sequential steps. May include task scheduling, time reporting, resourcing management, and portfolio management. May be an enterprise project management application. Must demonstrate value to be effective.

  • X

  • Y

  • Z

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