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Term Definition
"Confucians" (儒, rú) Those who follow the way of learning that was first discussed by Confucius in the Analects 論語 (Lunyu) and promoted in one form or another by his many admirers through history. Generally speaking, Confucianism was concerned with making government serve moral purposes, the role of the individual and the family in society, and justice.
"locals" 本地人 (běndì rén) The local people in the south of China. Tensions rose between them and the Hakka.
1788 Vietnam War The war fought between the Qing empire and Vietnam. The Qing lost in the war, which was a great humiliation for the court.
An Lushan 安祿山 (Ān Lùshān) Tang general (probably of Sogdian and Turkic descent) who led the rebellion that shook the Tang from 755 through 763.
Arrow War 1856–1860; Sometimes known as the Second Opium War. It was instigated in part by the Arrow Incident (when Qing officials had boarded the Arrow and arrested crew members on suspician of piracy). The French joined the British instigated by the execution of French missionary, Father Auguste Chapdelaine (known as the Father Chapdalaine Incident). It resulted in the Treaties of Tientsin which opened more ports for trade.
Banners 八旗 (bā qí) The system in which Manchu military forces were organized. There are eight banners with different color and design variations, created with allied forces of Mongols and eventually Han Chinese.
Beijing 北京 (Běijīng) The "Northern Capital"; known by many names throughout history, now it is the capital of the PRC
Benito Mussolini 1883 – 1945; fascist leader of Italy from 1922 to his death in 1943
Book of Changes 易經 (Yì jīng) Part of the Confucian cannon, the Book of Changes is a divination manual based on a set of 64 hexagrams or six-line symbols; the Book of Changes includes traditional commentaries about how to interpret the hexagrams
Boxer Rebellion 義和團運動 (Yìhétuán yùndòng) (1899-1900) an anti-foreign popular movement of "magician" fighters that began with the murder of Chinese Christians in Northern Shandong.
Boxers 義和拳 (Yìhéquán) A rebellious sect practicing forms of callisthenic military art and elaborate magical rituals which incited violence against foreigners and Chinese Christians in 1899. Some of its members even believed themselves to be possessed by spirits and therefore immune to Western bullets. Also known as the "Band of Harmonious [Fists]" 義和團 (Yìhétuán).
Canton 廣東 (Guǎngdōng) A province in Southern China.
Canton/Guangdong 廣東 (Guǎngdōng) A province South of China, Also refers to the Canton System, a regulated system of trade between the Chinese
state and foreign countries in Late Imperial China. All trade
between the Qing Empire and Europe were restricted to Canton with approved Chinese merchants, called the Cohong.
Carl Crow 1883-1945 CE. Famous journalist and businessman in China who built China's first advertising agency and wrote Four Hundred Million Customers, a book urging Western businesses to invest in China.
Catholicism 天主教 (Tiānzhǔ jiào) Literally the "Teachings of the Lord of Heaven," the name Catholics used to refer to their Christian teachings in China; when mispronounced by the foreign tongue, is sometimes sounded like tiānzhū jiào, "the grunt of the heavenly pig," which was used by Chinese to ridicule Catholic missionaries.
Celestial Court (Tiāncháo 天朝) An old Chinese term for the emperor's palace
Changchun 長春 (Chángchūn) A major city in Manchuria. It is in today's Jilin province.
Charoen Pokphland Group 正大集团 (Zhèngdà Jítuán) One of the world's largest Thailand-based agribusinesses.
Chen Dongsheng 陈东升 (Chén Dōngshēng) Chairman of the Taikang Insurance Company 泰康人寿保险股份有限公司 (Tàikāng rénshòu bǎoxiǎn gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī)
Chen Yuanyuan 陳圓圓 (Chén Yuányuán) fl. 1660s CE. A famous courtesan who lived during the 17th century. Allegedly, Wu Sangui opened Shanhaiguan and welcomed the Manchus because she was abducted and violated by Li Zicheng.
Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 (Jiāng Jièshí) 1888-1975 CE. A crucial political and military figure in the 20th
century. As an influential figure of the Nationalist
Party, he was the commander of many military actions. After the
Nationalist Party retreated to Taiwan, he held presidency for thirty
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 中國共產黨 (Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) 1921-the present CE. Communist party founded in 1921 and in control of mainland China since 1949
Chén Dúxiù 陳獨秀 1879-1942; one of the original founders of communist party in China
Civil Service Examination 科舉 (kējǔ) The highly competitve imperial civil service examination used to recruit people from all over China for government positions supposedly on the basis of merit. The preeminent examing degree was the "Presented Scholar" or Jinshi 進士 degree.
Clemens von Ketteler German foreign minister who was killed during the seige of foreign embassies in Beijing by the Boxers as he attempted to negotiate with Qing's Foreign Ministry
Cohong 公行 A guild system in Canton that conducted all import and export during the Qing prior to the opium war; sometimes referred to as the "Canton System"
commune and brigade enterprise 社队企业 (shèduì qǐyè) Socialist industrial enterprises introduced to China during the Great Leap Forward to produce steel and re-introduced in the 1970s to produce agricultural and repair tools.
Coolie 苦力 (Kǔlì) Literally means bitter labor; refers to an manual laborer.
Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 (Wénhuà dàgémìng) 1966-1976 CE. A massive movement, institigated by Mao Zedong, that attacked much of the leadership of the Communist Party and called for the destruction of traditional modes of behavior and thought.
Diarchy (also spelled dyarchy) a system of dual rule
Dorgon 多爾袞 (Duō'ěrgǔn) 1612-1650 CE. He was appointed as regent and became a de facto ruler during the early years of Shunzhi reign (1643-1661 CE).
Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧太后 (Cíxǐ tàihòu) 1835 – 1908 CE. Manchu concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor who unofficially controlled China as regent from 1861 to her death.
Empress Dowager 皇太后 (Huáng tàihòu) also known as 太后 (Tàihòu) Title given to the mother of an emperor.
Ernst Alexander Alfred Herrmann Freiherr von Falkenhausen 1878 – 1966; German general who left to become adviser to Chiang Kai-shkek
Examination System 科舉制度 (Kējǔ zhìdù) A civil service recruitment system based on written examinations.
Extraterritorality When a foreigner is exempted from the jurisdiction of local law. In this case, British subjects did not have to answer to Chinese law even with disputes with the Chinese; they only had to obey British law.
Fiefdom A territory granted to male descendants of the imperial house or to generals as a war prize in the founding of a new dynasty.
First Emperor [of Qin] 秦始皇 (Qínshǐhuáng) r. 221 BCE-210 BCE. Known as The First Emperor (始皇帝, Shǐhuángdì); he founded the Qing dynasty and unified China through the institution of unified measurements, axel lengths, writing script, etc.
First Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn zhànzhēng) 1840-1842 CE. The war fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on international matters such as trade and diplomatic relationship.
Forbidden City 紫禁城 (Zǐjìnchéng) Palace of Ming and Qing emperors located in Beijing. Now the site of the Palace Museum 故宮博物院 (Gùgōng Bówùyuàn)
Frank Johnson Goodnow, Ph.D., LL.B. 1859 – 1939; third president of Johns Hopkins University, acted as adviser to Chinese government under Yuan Shikai
George III of the United Kingdom 1738-1820 CE. He was the King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1760 to 1801. From 1802 to 1820, he was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Great Britain Island country northeast of the European continent. The country consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Britain was a key player in the two Opium Wars in 1839 and 1856.
Great Wall of China 長城 (Chángchéng) The Great Wall is a series of walls and fortifications built on the northern frontier with the intention of dividing the pastoral and sedentary economies.The earliest portions date back to as early as the 7th century BCE.
Guangxu 光緒 (Guāngxù) 1871-1908 CE. Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Nephew of and puppet emperor under the reign of Empress Dowager Cixi. Led the One Hundred Days of reform with Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in 1898, which Empress Cixi crushed.
Guanyin 觀音菩薩 (Guānyīn púsà) The bodhisattva of compassion
Guo 國 (Guó) A "kingdom" in ancient China; in imperial China various refers to fiefdom, country, land, or even an empire as in "The Great Qing Empire" (Da Qingguo 大清國)
Hakka 客家 (Kèjiā) Literally "Guest People"; later migrants to the south of China who had distinct customs and dialect. Tensions rose between them and the "locals."
Han Dynasty 漢 (Hàn) (202BEC-220AD) It was devided into two periods: Western Han (206 BCE-9 CE) and Eastern Han (25-220 CE). It succeeded the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin (221 BCE- 207 BCE), and broke into various kingdoms upon its fall.
Heaven's Mandate 天命 (tiānmìng) In traditional Confucian terms, Heaven's 天 (Tian) legitimation that an emperor is fit to rule; Heaven can send down its mandate, but it can also take it away.
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace 太平天國 (Taìpíng Tiānguó) The Kingdom that Hong Xiuquan founded in Nanjing were the Taipings set up a government with Hong Xiuquan as King.
Henry Pu Yi 溥儀 (Pǔ Yí) 1906-1967 CE. The last Chinese emperor.
Higher Examination 高考(Gāokǎo) Modern standard examination system for placement into colleges and universities (replacing the much older official examination system). It tests for political correctness as well as for math, science, and composition to determine admission to China’s universities
Howqua 伍秉鉴 (Wǔbǐngjiàn) 1769-1843; a great and wealthy merchant who controlloed the Cantonese Cohong system during the Qing dynasty before the Opium War
Hóng Xiùquán 洪秀全 (1814-1864) A Hakka religious leader who failed the civil service examination multiple times. He had visions of a beared old man and a middle age man that he believed was God and Jesus. He thought he was Jesus's younger brother and declared himself the king of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping Tianguo).
Ilha Formaosa (Beautiful Isle) The name Portuguese traders gave to Taiwan in the 16th century.
Inner Asian zone Part of the Chinese world view: tributary tribes and states of nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples in Inner Asia—ethnically and culturally non-Chinese, but still within Chinese power sphere.
Japan 日本 (Rìběn) Island nation in East Asia east of the mainland of China.
Jiaqing emperor 嘉慶皇帝 (Jiāqìng huángdì) r. 1796-1820; the seventh emperor of the Manchu-QIng dynasty, and the son of the Qianlong emperor.
Jiǎng Wěiguó 蔣緯國 1916 – 1997; adopted son of Chiang Kai-shek
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt 1866 – 1936; German military adviser, worked with Chiang Kai-shek
Joseph Stalin 1878-1953; premier of Soviet Union who held power by eliminating critics
Jurchen 女真 (nǚzhen) Inhabited Manchuria (Northeast China) until 17th century, at which point they became known as the Manchu (滿族, Manzu)
Kaiser Wilhelm II 1859-1941 CE. King of Prussia who ruled over Empire of Germany and Kingdom of Prussia from 1888 to 1918.
Kang Youwei 康有為 (Kāng Yǒuwéi) 1858-1927 CE. One of the most influential Chinese thinkers of the late 19th Century. Known for his views on constitutional monarchy, he played a major role in the failed Hundred Days Reform under the Guangxu Emperor. Kang is known for his utopian work, Datong, 大同 (Dàtóng), and a book on Confucius' progressive vision of society, Confucius as Reformer (Kongzi Gaizhi Kao).
Kangxi Emperor 康熙皇帝 (Kāngxī huángdì) 1654-1722 CE. He reigned China for more than sixty years, solidified the rule of the empire and created an age of prosperity.
Karl Marx 1818 – 1883; political theorist and economist who came up with an influential theory of the evolution of society and forecasted a communist future of the dictator of the proletariat
Kowtow 磕頭 (Kētóu) A ritual custom of bowing on the knees and "knocking one's head" on the ground in respect of one's superior.
Koxinga 鄭成功 (Zhèng Chénggōng) 1624-1662 CE. He was a Ming loyalist who resisted Manchu's conquest of China after the fall of the Ming dynasty. He took over Taiwan to support his campain against the Qing dynasty.
Kublai Khan 忽必烈汗 (Hū Bì Liè Hàn) 1260-1294 CE. Grandson of Chinggis Khan who conquered the Song and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271.
Li Zicheng 李自成 (Lǐ Zìchéng) 1606-1645 CE. A peasant rebellion leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty and established a short-lived Shun dynasty.
Lin Zexu 林則徐 (Lín Zéxú) 1785-1850; A Chinese scholar and official, commisioned by the Guangxu emperor to put an end to the opium trade in Canton; also known as "commisioner Lin"
Literary Inquisition 1770s It was imposed by Qianlong emperor who intended to purge anti-Manchu texts by burning and surppressing "dangerous" works.
Little Red Book/Quotations from Chairman Mao 毛主席语录 (Máo Zhǔxí Yǔlù) A collection of Mao's speeches and writings, which became the most widely sold book in the Cultural Revolution period in China and also gained popularity in the world among students and radicals
Liu Bang 劉邦 (Liú Bāng) 247-195 BCE. Posthumous name Gaozu 高祖. Originally from a modest
background, he became the founder of the Han Dynasty by defeating his
main rival, Xiang Yu, reunifying China.
Lord George Macartney 1737-1806 CE. He was an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He led the Macartney Embassy to Beijing in 1792 with a large British delegation
Lu Guanqiu 鲁冠球 (Lǔ Guānqiú) Chairman of Wanxiang Group 萬向集團(Wàn xiàng jítuán)
Lǐ Dàzhāo 李大釗 1888-1927; one of the original founders of communist party in China
Macao 澳門 (Àomén) Southern Chinese territory that was colonized by the Portuguese in the mid-16th century
Manchuria 滿洲 (Mǎnzhōu) Historical name for the geographical region in Northeast Asia that was
home to the Xianbei (鮮卑, Xianbei), Jurchen (女真, Nüzhen), Khitan (契丹,
Qidan), and Manchu (滿族). Comprised, at various points in history, the
three provinces of Heilongjiang (黑龍江, Heilongjiang), Jilin (吉林, Jilin),
and Liaoning (遼寧, Liaoning) in Northeast China (華北, Huabei); and parts
of Inner Mongolia (內蒙古, Nei Menggu); parts of the Primorshy Krai,
Khabarovsk Krai, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Amur Oblast in Russia. It is the birthplace of the Jurchens who twice invaded China and founded dynasties, the Jin and the Qing. The region became a puppet regime under the Japanese from 1932 to 1945.
Manchus 滿族 (Mǎnzú) Tungusic people originating in Manchuria (see "Manchuria"); descendents
of the Jurchen people (see "Jurchens") and founding rulers of QIng
Dynasty (清, Qing, 1644-1912 CE)
Mao Zedong 毛澤東 (Máozédōng) 1893-1976 CE. Leader of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.
Max Hermann Bauer 1869 – 1929; German military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek
Mikkhail Borodin 1884 – 1951; member of the Comintern who helped unite the communists with republicans in China
Ming Dynasty 明 (Míng) 1368-1644 CE; the last unified empire ruled by Han Chinese. It succeded
the Yuan Dynasty and was followed by the Qing Dynasty (1664- 1911 CE).
Ming Taizu 明太祖 (Míng Taìzǔ) 1328-1398 CE. Better known by his imperial temple name, Taizu, Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋 was the founder of the
Ming dynasty.
Mongol Empire 蒙古帝國 (Ménggǔ dìguó) 1206-1368 CE. Great Mongolian Nation (Ikh Mongol Uls)
Mongols 蒙古人 (Ménggǔ rén) Inner Asian people sharing a common language and existing primarily as various tribes in the early 12th Century, but unified under the Mongol Empire of Temüjin (Chinggis Khan) in the late 12th Century and early 13th Century. Founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Mongols 蒙古族 (Ménggǔ zú) (1) Inner Asian people sharing a common language and existing primarily
as various tribes in the early 12th Century, but unified under the
Mongol Empire of Temüjin (Chinggis Khan) in the late 12th Century and
early 13th Century. (2) First of the four ethnic categories under the
Yuan Ethnic Hierearchy System (see "Yuan Ethnic Hierarchy System")
Máozédōng 毛澤東 1893-1976 CE. Leader of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.
Nanjing Decade 南京十年 (Nánjīng shí nián) 1927-1937; decade when Chiang Kai-shek ruled from Nanjing as capitol
Nanking 南京 (Nánjīng) A city in China that was occupied during the Taiping Rebellion and known as the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace.
National Assembly 國民大會 (Guómín Dàhuì) 1910 CE. Representative body established by the Qing Dynasty during its New Policy reforms period for local representation in the reformed Qing government. When the National Assembly finally met in Peking in 1910, it aimed to constitute a new government no longer beholden to the Qing.
neìluàn waìhuàn (內亂外患) Disasters within and without. (Literally: Internal disorder, external disasters).
Northeastern China 東北 (Dōngbeǐ) Northeastern China. It is the geographical region of Manchuria during the Qing dynasty. Today it consists of three provinces: Heilong jiang, Liaoning and Jilin.
Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn zhànzhēng) 1839–1842; The war fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on international matters such as trade and diplomatic relationships.
Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn Zhànzhēng) 1839–1842 In Britain, commercial interests pushed for war with China, in response to Lin Zexu's policies on the opium trade.
Outer Zone Part of the Chinese world view: consisting of the ‘outer barbarians’ at further distance, including eventually Japan and other states of Southeast Asian and (in theory) Europe, which were supposed to send tribute when trading.
Peking 北京 (Beǐjīng) The Capital of the Qing 清 Empire
Physiographic macroregions Nine geographic regions of China (Northeast China, North China, Northwest China, Upper Yangtze, Middle Yangtze, Lower Yangtze, Southeast Coast, Lingnan, and Yungui) that constitute major areas of movement and local life.
proletariat the collective working or laboring class in a capitalist society
Pu Yi 溥儀 (Pǔyí) 1906-1967 CE. Last Emperor of China. Abdicated in 1912 and became the emperor of the puppet state Manchukuo from 1934-1945.
Qianlong Emperor 乾隆皇帝 (Qiánlóng huángdì) 1711-1799 CE.
Qin 秦 (Qín) 221 BCE-210 BCE. First dynasty to unify imperial China. Founded by the First Emperor (Shǐhuángdì).
Qing 清 (Qīng) 1636-1911 CE. It took Beijing in 1644, and from then on established a great empire which ruled China for about three centuries. It was the last imperial dynasty of China.
Queue 辮子 (Biànzi) The haircut mandated by the Manchu Qing dynasty designed to signify Qing dominance; all males were required to wear a queue
Republican China 中華民國 (Zhōnghuá mínguó) 1912-1949; Republican China attempted to rule China as a constitutional republic, although in fact it was divided by local warlords; later it was secured by the Kuomintang, who retreated to Taiwan in 1949, after the victory of communist forces.
Republican China 中華民國 (Zhōnghuá mínguó) 1912-1949; Republican China attempted to rule China as a constitutional republic, although in fact it was divided by local warlords; later it was secured by the Kuomintang, who retreated to Taiwan in 1949, after the victory of communist forces.
Revolution of 1911 It overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
Ryukyu 琉球國 (Liúqiú guó) An independent kingdom that ruled the Ryukyu islands south of Japan.
Self-Strengthening Movement 自強 (zìqiáng) The movement focuses on “zhongxue wei ti...” which is Chinese learning for the foundation, and western learning for practical purposes, to appropriate Western technology while saving the essence of the Confucian state.
Shanhaiguan 山海關 (Shānhaǐguān) It is located at the juncture of Hebei and Liaoning Provinces, being regarded as the starting point of the Ming Great Wall. It is a critical geographical site where millitary forces competed for in history.
Shun Dynasty 順 (Shùn) 1643-1644 CE. The brief dynasty established by Li Zicheng after his army overthrew the Ming dynasty.
Shunzhi Emperor 順治皇帝 (Shùnzhì huángdì) 1638-1661 CE. The second emperor of the Qing dynasty. He was, however, the first Qing emperor to rule over the Qing empire.
Sinic Zone Part of the Chinese world view: the most nearby and culturally similar tributaries, Korea, Vietnam, Ryukus, and
(at brief times) Japan
Six Dynasties 六朝 (Liùcháo) 220-589 CE. Commonly used to refer to the dynasties established in the South after the fall of the Han, including the Wu (吳), Jin (晋), Liu-Song 劉宋, Qi 齊, Liang 粱, and Chen 陳. Also known as the Period of Division.
Su Shi 蘇軾 (Sū Shì) 1037-1101 CE. Also known as Su Dongpo (東坡, Dongpo). Polymath (poet, calligrapher, essayist, commentator, art critic) and statesman in Song Dynasty; opponent of Wang Anshi's New Laws and defender of the national literary examinations
Sui 隋 (Suí)Dynasty 589-618 CE. dynasty that reunified China after the period of division and before the Tang.
Sòng 宋 960–1279; Chinese dynasty led by the Zhào 趙 dynastic family, divided between Northern (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279)
Sūn Zhōngshān 孫中山 1866 – 1925; known as the father of modern China, founder of the Republic of China, and innovator in state- and city-planning in China
Taiping Rebellion 太平叛亂 (Taìpíng pànluàn) or 太平起義 (Tàipíng qǐyì) 1850-1864 CE. A great peasant uprising that that spread over sixteen provinces and led to the destruction of six hundred cities and the deaths of twenty million people led by the charismatic religious leader Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan 台灣 (Táiwān) Island off the coast of mainland China in the southeast; Koxinga continued his campaign against the Qing in the mid-17th century, and later Chiang Kai-shek continued the Republic of China there where it still exists today; also known as Isle Formaosa "the beautiful island," the name it was given by Dutch traders.
Tang 唐 (Táng) Dynasty 618-907 CE. An expansive and cosmopolitan empire.
The "Great Qing Empire" 大清國 (Dà Qīng guó) 1636-1911 CE. It took Beijing in 1644, and from then on established a great empire which ruled China for about three centuries. It was the last imperial dynasty of China.
The An Lushan Rebellion 安史之亂 (Ān Shǐ zhī luàn) (755-762 CE) Rebellion led by An Lushan; resulted in the flight of Emperor Xuanzong from Chang'an; ended in 762 CE, but resulted in a weakened central power of later Tang emperors.
The First Han Emperor 漢高祖 (Hàn Gāozǔ) 劉邦 (Liúbāng) (r. 202 BCE-195 BCE). d.256BCE-195BCE, posthumous name Gaozu 高祖. Originally from a modest background, he became the founder of the Han Dynasty by defeating his main rival, Xiang Yu, reunifying China.
The People's Republic of China 中華人民共和國 (Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghé guó) 1949- Present. After the Communist Party's victory in the civil war, Mao
Zedong and other leaders of the Communist Party built a new China
according to their socialist and egalitarian visions.
The shi 士 (shì) The "scholar official" class, the educated elite of China who particpated in cultural and literary production throughout Chinese history
The Silk Road 絲綢之路 (Sīchóu zhīlù) Trade routes across Central Asia from China to Europe. Already in existence during the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), it served as a way to connect the East and the West over land at various points in history. Named for the lucrative Silk trade that was carried out through the routes starting in the Han Dynasty.
The War of the Three Feudatories 三藩之亂 (Sān fān zhī luàn) 1673-1681 CE. Kangxi Emperor declared war against the three feudatories in southeast China. Eventually, he abolished the system of feudatory.
Three Kingdoms 三國 (Sānguó) 220–280 CE. Period following the end of the Han dynasty when China was divided between the kingdoms of Wei (魏, Wèi), Shu (蜀, Shǔ), and Wu (吳, Wú).
Tianjin Massacre 天津教案 (Tiānjīn jiàoàn) 1870. Rumors had spread about Catholic church activities (especially their dealing with orphans) which led to riots against the french. The riot resulted in a number of foreign buildings being burnt as well as Priests, nuns, Chinese christians and French officials being killed.
Tianxia 天下 (Tiānxià) "all under heaven", was sometimes used to mean the whole world, often refers to the Chinese Empire
Tianzi 天子 (Tiānzǐ) "son of heaven", the Emperor
Tibet 西藏 (Xīzàng) Plateau west of China bordering the Himalayas to the South.
Treat of Nanking 南京條約 (Nánjīng tiáoyuē) one of the so-called "unequal treaties" imposed by foreign powers in Qing China; the Treaty of Nanking was levied against the Qing after its humiliation at the end of the Opium War, and it granted special "extra-territorial" status to Westerners in China.
Treaty of Nanjing 南京條約 (Nánjīng tiáoyuē) 1842 CE when the British took up position outside Nanjing, the Chinese were forced to sue for peace, resulting in this treaty, which is considered the first in what came to be called the "unequal treaties." The treaty called for the an indemnity of 21 million ounces of silver, abolishing the Co-hong, the opening of Five treaty ports (guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai), a decrease in tariff and 'extraterritorality' for British citizens.
Táng 唐朝 618-907; Tang dynasty of the ruling house of the Li 李 family, which probably was of Turkic origin.
Uighur People 維吾爾 (Weíwú'ěr) Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia
Vladimir Lenin 1870-1924; early communist political theorist and premier of the Soviet Union until his death
Wanxiang Group 万向集团 (Wànxiàng Jítuán) China's largest automobile parts manufacturer and is now a global company with ownership of at least fifteen North American firms.
Wu Sangui 吳三桂 (Wú Sānguì) 1612-1678 CE. A Ming general on the northeastern frontier. After the last Ming emperor hanged himself in Beijing, Wu Sangui opened Shanhaiguan and let the Qing troops into the capital to chase out the military force of Li Zicheng.
Xianfeng 咸豐 (Xiánfēng) 1831-1861 CE. Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Presided over the two Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.
Xinhai Revolution 辛亥革命 (Xīnhài gémìng) 1911; the revolution that finally overthrew the Qing dynasty and forced the abdication of the last emperor Puyi
Xiongnu 匈奴 (Xiōngnú) Nomadic people of the north-western frontier
Yellow River Conservancy A government agency undertaken by the Qing government to regulate the Yellow River and the basin areas.
Yuan Dynasty 元 (Yuán) 1271-1368 CE. Also known as the Great Yuan (大元, Dayuan). It was the
first empire created by non-Han people that unified and ruled China.
Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 (Yuán Shìkaǐ) 1859-1915 CE. He was an influential figure at the end of the Qing dynasty, and was elected as the first official president of the Republic of China. Very briefly, he tried to restore monarchy in China but failed.
Yung Wing 容閎 (Róng Hóng) 1828-1912 CE. Yung Wing, the first Chinese graduate of an American University, implemented the first full educational mission aboard, in the 1870's, consisting of 120 Chinese students -- boys 12-14 years old -- to Hartford, Connecticut.
Yuán Shìkaǐ 袁世凱 1859-1916 CE. He was an influential figure at the end of the Qing dynasty, and was elected as the first official president of the Republic of China. Very briefly, he tried to restore monarchy in China but failed.
Zhang Deyi 張德彜 (Zhāng Déyí) 1847-1918 CE. One of the first Chinese students to study foreign languages in the newly established Tongwen Guan 同文馆 (Tóngwén Guǎn) and to travel abroad in 1866. He became ambassador to Great Britain in 1902.
Zhejiang 浙江 (Zhèjiāng)Province Province in eastern coastal China, known for its
Zheng He 鄭和 (Zhènghé) 1377-1431 CE. Eunuch who led a Chinese fleet into Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean in the early 15th Century during the reign of the Ming Dynasty Yongle Emperor.
“Fifty-five Days at Peking” 1963 CE. Samuel Bronson Production film on Beijing's seige of the foreign legations, starring Charlton Heston and Ava Gardner.
大清國 (Dàqīngguó) The "Great Qing Empire" (1644-1911)