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Term Definition
People's Libration Army (PLA) 中國人民解放軍 (Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn) (1927-present) Name for the military under the control of the Chinese Communist Party
"Confucians" (儒, rú) Those who follow the way of learning that was first discussed by Confucius in the Analects 論語 (Lunyu) and promoted in one form or another by his many admirers through history. Generally speaking, Confucianism was concerned with making government serve moral purposes, the role of the individual and the family in society, and justice.
"fascism à la Chine" Chinese style fascism, largely immitating the Italian model
"locals" 本地人 (běndì rén) The local people in the south of China. Tensions rose between them and the Hakka.
Aisin-Gioro Puyi 愛新覺羅·溥儀 (Aixinjueluo Puyi) 1906-1967. Emperor of Qing 1908-1912 and July 1-12, 1917. Emperor of Manchukuo 1934-1945. Also known as Henry Puyi
Alexander the Great 356-323 BCE; ancient Greek king who expanded his empire from Greece to Egypt and even to northwestern India
An Lushan 安祿山 (Ān Lùshān) Tang general (probably of Sogdian and Turkic descent) who led the rebellion that shook the Tang from 755 through 763.
Arrow War 1856–1860; Sometimes known as the Second Opium War. It was instigated in part by the Arrow Incident (when Qing officials had boarded the Arrow and arrested crew members on suspician of piracy). The French joined the British instigated by the execution of French missionary, Father Auguste Chapdelaine (known as the Father Chapdalaine Incident). It resulted in the Treaties of Tientsin which opened more ports for trade.
Autumn Harvest Uprising 秋收起義 (qiūshōu qǐyì) September 27, 1927; an experimental peasant uprising in Hunan, led by Mao Zedong, and quashed by local authorities; Mao Zedong was arrested and bribed himself out of jail
Bai hua 白話 (báihuà) "plain speech," or vernacular Chinese
Banners 八旗 (bā qí) The system in which Manchu military forces were organized. There are eight banners with different color and design variations, created with allied forces of Mongols and eventually Han Chinese.
Beijing 北京 (Běijīng) The "Northern Capital"; known by many names throughout history, now it is the capital of the PRC
Beijing-Zhangjiakou (Peking-Kalgan) Railroad constructed between 1905 and 1909; first all-Chinese planned and built railway
Benito Mussolini 1883 – 1945; fascist leader of Italy from 1922 to his death in 1943
Book of Changes 易經 (Yì jīng) Part of the Confucian cannon, the Book of Changes is a divination manual based on a set of 64 hexagrams or six-line symbols; the Book of Changes includes traditional commentaries about how to interpret the hexagrams
bourgeoisie the middle-class in capitalist society who controls the means of production
Boxer Rebellion 義和團運動 (Yìhétuán yùndòng) (1899-1900) an anti-foreign popular movement of "magician" fighters that began with the murder of Chinese Christians in Northern Shandong.
Boxer Rebellion/Boxer War 義和團運動 (Yìhétuán yùndòng) (1899-1900) an anti-foreign popular rebel movement that began with the murder of Chinese Christians in Northern Shandong but later expanded to Qing state-sanctioned murder of foreigners in the regions near Tianjin and Beijing, resulting in the military expedition of eight nations against China, including the US, UK, and Japan.
Boxers 義和拳 (Yìhéquán) A rebellious sect practicing forms of callisthenic military art and elaborate magical rituals which incited violence against foreigners and Chinese Christians in 1899. Some of its members even believed themselves to be possessed by spirits and therefore immune to Western bullets. Also known as the "Band of Harmonious [Fists]" 義和團 (Yìhétuán).
Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培 ( Cài Yuánpéi) 1868-1940 CE. Important thinker and education reformer in early 20th Century China. President of Beijing University from 1916-1922, he supported the university's student protests during the May Fourth Movement. As the president of the university, he promoted a tolerant environment for independent scholarship and advocated freedom of thought among the students and teachers.
campaign 運動 (yùndòng) a military campaign; also a social or political movement
Canton 廣東 (Guǎngdōng) A province in Southern China.
Canton/Guangdong 廣東 (Guǎngdōng) A province South of China, Also refers to the Canton System, a regulated system of trade between the Chinese
state and foreign countries in Late Imperial China. All trade 
between the Qing Empire and Europe were restricted to Canton with approved Chinese merchants, called the Cohong.
Carl Crow 1883-1945 CE. Famous journalist and businessman in China who built China's first advertising agency and wrote Four Hundred Million Customers, a book urging Western businesses to invest in China.
Catholicism 天主教 (Tiānzhǔ jiào) Literally the "Teachings of the Lord of Heaven," the name Catholics used to refer to their Christian teachings in China; when mispronounced by the foreign tongue, is sometimes sounded like tiānzhū jiào, "the grunt of the heavenly pig," which was used by Chinese to ridicule Catholic missionaries.
Celestial Court (Tiāncháo 天朝) An old Chinese term for the emperor's palace
Central Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC)
(zhōngguó gòngchǎndǎng zhōngyāng zhèngzhì jú chángwù wěiyuánhuì)
a powerful committee of leadership in the People's Republic of China, where top-level economic, political, legal, and other decisions are made
Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 (Zhāng Zuòlín) (1875–1928) warlord whose power was based in Manchuria from 1916 until he was defeated by Chiang Kai-Shek in 1928
Changchun 長春 (Chángchūn) A major city in Manchuria. It is in today's Jilin province.
Charlemagne known as Charles the Great, 742/7/8-814; first emperor of the Carolingian Empire in western Europe centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire
Charles William Eliot (1834-1926) Harvard President who helped finding a legal adviser for Yuan Shikai for the establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy.
Charoen Pokphland Group 正大集团 (Zhèngdà Jítuán) One of the world's largest Thailand-based agribusinesses.
Chen Chi-tang 陳濟棠 (Chén Jìtáng) (1890 – 1954) military commander and governing authority in Guangdong province during China's warlord era
Chen Dongsheng 陈东升 (Chén Dōngshēng) Chairman of the Taikang Insurance Company 泰康人寿保险股份有限公司 (Tàikāng rénshòu bǎoxiǎn gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī)
Chen Duxiu 陳獨秀 (Chén Dúxiù) 1879-1942 CE. An important thinker and educator in early 20th Century, he was an important figure in the New Culture and May Fourth Movement and a co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921.
Chen Yuanyuan 陳圓圓 (Chén Yuányuán) fl. 1660s CE. A famous courtesan who lived during the 17th century. Allegedly, Wu Sangui opened Shanhaiguan and welcomed the Manchus because she was abducted and violated by Li Zicheng.
Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 (Jiāng Jièshí) 1888-1975 CE. A crucial political and military figure in the 20th 
century. As an influential figure of the Nationalist 
Party, he was the commander of many military actions. After the 
Nationalist Party retreated to Taiwan, he held presidency for thirty 
Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石(Jiǎng Jièshí) 1887-1975 CE. Leader of the Nationalist Party who ruled over mainland China until 1949. He became the President of the Republic of Taiwan until his death in 1975. Also known as 蔣中正 (Jiàng zhōngzhèng)
China National Aviation Corporation 中國航空公司 (Zhōngguó hángkōng gōngsī) joint enterprise between Curtiss Wright Company and Chinese Ministry of Communications, and later between Pan American Airlines and China, founded as civilian carrier in 1930.
Chinese Civil War 國共內戰 (Guógòng nèizhàn) 1946-1950; war fought on Chinese soil between Nationalist (Kuomintang) and Communist led forces
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Central Committee 中國共產黨中央委員會 (Zhōngguó gòngchǎndǎng zhōngyāng wěiyuánhuì) The most important decision-making organ within the Chinese Communist Party. It is also responsible for the election of members of the Politburo and its Standing Committee and overseeing the provincial and county party committees
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 中國共產黨 (Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) (1921-the present) Communist party founded in 1921 and in control of mainland China since 1949.
Chinese Soviet Republic 中華蘇維埃共和國 (Zhōnghuá-Sūwéiāi gònghé guó) a.k.a., Jiangxi Soviet; small republic founded by Mao Zedong in November of 1931 in Jiangxi province
Chén Dúxiù 陳獨秀 1879-1942; one of the original founders of communist party in China
Civil Service Examination 科舉 (kējǔ) The highly competitve imperial civil service examination used to recruit people from all over China for government positions supposedly on the basis of merit. The preeminent examing degree was the "Presented Scholar" or Jinshi 進士 degree.
Classical Chinese 文言文 (wényán wén) the literary language of China that literate men could read and write throughout imperial Chinese history, as opposed to vernacular speech, which existed in many forms and in many places in China
Clemens von Ketteler German foreign minister who was killed during the seige of foreign embassies in Beijing by the Boxers as he attempted to negotiate with Qing's Foreign Ministry
Cohong 公行 A guild system in Canton that conducted all import and export during the Qing prior to the opium war; sometimes referred to as the "Canton System"
commune and brigade enterprise 社队企业 (shèduì qǐyè) Socialist industrial enterprises introduced to China during the Great Leap Forward to produce steel and re-introduced in the 1970s to produce agricultural and repair tools.
Communist International (Comintern) The international communist organization initiated in Moscow in 1919. Also known as the Third International (1919–1943)
Communist Manifesto An important document of communist literature composed by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx, stating the aims of the communist international movement and making a call to arms to communists around the world to unite
Communist Party of China
Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng
(1921-the present) Communist party founded in 1921 and in control of mainland China since 1949.
Confucianism 儒學 (Rúxué) The way of learning that was first discussed by Confucius in the Analects 論語 (Lunyu) and promoted in one form or another by his many admirers through history. Generally speaking, Confucianism was concerned with making government serve moral purposes, the role of the individual and the family in society, and justice.
Conscription compulsory enlistment of people by a government in some service. Usually military or labor service.
Coolie 苦力 (Kǔlì) Literally means bitter labor; refers to an manual laborer.
Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 (Wénhuà dàgémìng) (1966-1976) A massive movement, institigated by Mao Zedong, that attacked much of the leadership of the Communist Party and called for the destruction of traditional modes of behavior and thought. After Mao's death, his wife Jiang Qing and her associates known as the Gang of Four were held responsible for the worse excesses of the Cultural Revolution.
Declaration of Independence 1776 CE. Document written by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress, declaring the independence of the thirteen North American colonies from Great Britain.
Deng Xiaoping 鄧小平 (Dèng Xiǎopíng) 1904-1997; the leading figure of the Communist Party after Mao's death in 1976,; although he never served as President of General Secretary, he served as Chairman of the Central Military Commission (1981-87) and instituted important economic and educational reforms in the late 70s and 80s, which led the way to the China we know today.
Diarchy (also spelled dyarchy) a system of dual rule
Dorgon 多爾袞 (Duō'ěrgǔn) 1612-1650 CE. He was appointed as regent and became a de facto ruler during the early years of Shunzhi reign (1643-1661 CE).
Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890-1969; United States president, 1953–1961
Eight model plays 八个样板戏/八個樣板戲 (bāgè yàngbǎnxì) eight plays that were designed as models of socialist reality under the direction of Jiang Qing; these replaced other literary forms which were laregly banned during Mao's cultural revoultion
Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧太后 (Cíxǐ tàihòu) 1835 – 1908 CE. Manchu concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor who unofficially controlled China as regent from 1861 to her death.
Empress Dowager 皇太后 (Huáng tàihòu) also known as 太后 (Tàihòu) Title given to the mother of an emperor.
Ernst Alexander Alfred Herrmann Freiherr von Falkenhausen 1878 – 1966; German general who left to become adviser to Chiang Kai-shkek
Examination System 科舉制度 (Kējǔ zhìdù) A civil service recruitment system based on written examinations.
Extraterritorality When a foreigner is exempted from the jurisdiction of local law. In this case, British subjects did not have to answer to Chinese law even with disputes with the Chinese; they only had to obey British law.
Fiefdom A territory granted to male descendants of the imperial house or to generals as a war prize in the founding of a new dynasty.
First Emperor [of Qin] 秦始皇 (Qínshǐhuáng) r. 221 BCE-210 BCE. Known as The First Emperor (始皇帝, Shǐhuángdì); he founded the Qing dynasty and unified China through the institution of unified measurements, axel lengths, writing script, etc.
First Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn zhànzhēng) 1840-1842 CE. The war fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on international matters such as trade and diplomatic relationship.
Forbidden City 紫禁城 (Zǐjìnchéng) Palace of Ming and Qing emperors located in Beijing. Now the site of the Palace Museum 故宮博物院 (Gùgōng Bówùyuàn)
Four Freedoms Goals articulated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his 1941 State of the Union address. Proposed that "in the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms:" (1) freedom of speech and expression, (2) freedom of religion, (3) freedom from want, (4) freedom from fear -- "everywhere in the world"
Fourth of July Annual national holiday in the United States celebrating the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776.
Frank Goodnow Constitutional adviser to Yuan Shikai's regime.
Frank Johnson Goodnow, Ph.D., LL.B. 1859 – 1939; third president of Johns Hopkins University, acted as adviser to Chinese government under Yuan Shikai
Gaius Julius Caesar 100-44 BCE; ancient statesman and military leader of the Roman Republic
George III of the United Kingdom 1738-1820 CE. He was the King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1760 to 1801. From 1802 to 1820, he was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Gold Yuan 金圓券 (jīnyuánquàn) New currency issued by the Nationalist government in 1948 in response to inflationary pressures; originally pegged at 4 GY to 1 USD, 23 million GY to 1 USD by May 1949
Great Britain Island country northeast of the European continent. The country consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Britain was a key player in the two Opium Wars in 1839 and 1856.
Great Leap Forward 大躍進 (Dà yuèjìn) (1958-1960) failed agricultural and industrial campaign that led to mass famine, resulting in the death of between 30 and 45 million people.
Great Wall of China 長城 (Chángchéng) The Great Wall is a series of walls and fortifications built on the northern frontier with the intention of dividing the pastoral and sedentary economies.The earliest portions date back to as early as the 7th century BCE.
Guangxu 光緒 (Guāngxù) 1871-1908 CE. Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Nephew of and puppet emperor under the reign of Empress Dowager Cixi. Led the One Hundred Days of reform with Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in 1898, which Empress Cixi crushed.
Guanyin 觀音菩薩 (Guānyīn púsà) The bodhisattva of compassion
Guo 國 (Guó) A "kingdom" in ancient China; in imperial China various refers to fiefdom, country, land, or even an empire as in "The Great Qing Empire" (Da Qingguo 大清國)
Guofu 國父 (guófù) "father of modern China," a name for Sun Yat-sen
Hakka 客家 (Kèjiā) Literally "Guest People"; later migrants to the south of China who had distinct customs and dialect. Tensions rose between them and the "locals."
Han Dynasty 漢 (Hàn) (202BEC-220AD) It was devided into two periods: Western Han (206 BCE-9 CE) and Eastern Han (25-220 CE). It succeeded the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin (221 BCE- 207 BCE), and broke into various kingdoms upon its fall.
Heaven's Mandate 天命 (tiānmìng) In traditional Confucian terms, Heaven's 天 (Tian) legitimation that an emperor is fit to rule; Heaven can send down its mandate, but it can also take it away.
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace 太平天國 (Taìpíng Tiānguó) The Kingdom that Hong Xiuquan founded in Nanjing were the Taipings set up a government with Hong Xiuquan as King.
Henan Famine of 1942-43 河南災荒 (Hénán zāihuāng) 1942-1943.
Henry Pu Yi 溥儀 (Pǔ Yí) 1906-1967 CE. The last Chinese emperor.
Higher Examination 高考(Gāokǎo) Modern standard examination system for placement into colleges and universities (replacing the much older official examination system). It tests for political correctness as well as for math, science, and composition to determine admission to China’s universities
Howqua 伍秉鉴 (Wǔbǐngjiàn) 1769-1843; a great and wealthy merchant who controlloed the Cantonese Cohong system during the Qing dynasty before the Opium War
Hu Jintao 胡錦濤 (Hú Jǐntāo) b. 1942; paramount leader of China in the beginning of the 20th century; General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (2002-2012), President of the People's Republic (2003-2013), and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (2005-2013)
Hu Shih 胡適 (Hú Shì) 1891-1962 CE. Liberal reformer of early 20th Century China and one of the most important figures in the New Culture Movement, advocating the use of the vernacular language, "baihua" 白話 (báihuà), for the transformation of Chinese culture. Hu Shih studied philosophy at Columbia University and later became the Nationalist government's ambassador to the US. In Taiwan, he headed the Academia Sinica 中央研究院 (Zhōngyāng Yánjiùyuàn), the leading research institution supported by the Taiwanese government.
hukou system (戶口) hùkǒu a registration system that kept poor families from traveling to the major cities
huoxue 活学 (huóxué) Lin Biao advocated the "huo xue," or "living study," of Mao Zedong thought. By memorizing Mao's quotations from the Little Red Book, ordinary Chinese could internalize Maoist thought and be able to change their ethical and political behavior.
Hurley, Patrick J. 赫爾利 (Hē'ěrlì) 1883-1963. US Secretary of War 1929-1933, Major General in US Army, US Ambassador to China 1944-1945. Also known as "Big Wind (大風, Dafeng)" after the Chocktaw Indian war cry he uttered upon arriving in China.
Hóng Xiùquán 洪秀全 (1814-1864) A Hakka religious leader who failed the civil service examination multiple times. He had visions of a beared old man and a middle age man that he believed was God and Jesus. He thought he was Jesus's younger brother and declared himself the king of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping Tianguo).
Ilha Formaosa (Beautiful Isle) The name Portuguese traders gave to Taiwan in the 16th century.
Imperial Examination/Civil Service Examination 科舉 (kējǔ kǎoshì) Variously referred to as National Examination or Imperial Examination. Competitive imperial civil service examination used to recruit for government positions on the basis of merit -- accumulated learning and the ability to apply it in new situations. The preeminent examing degree was the "Presented Scholar" or Jinshi 進士 degree.
Inflation continuing increase in the prices of goods and sevices in an economy over time
Inner Asian zone Part of the Chinese world view: tributary tribes and states of nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples in Inner Asia—ethnically and culturally non-Chinese, but still within Chinese power sphere.
Japan 日本 (Rìběn) Island nation in East Asia east of the mainland of China.
Jean-Bedel Bocassa (1921-1996) military dictator of Central African Republic
Jiang Qing 江青 (Jiāngqīng) 1914-1991 CE. Last wife of Mao. She presided over the Communist state's artistic productions during the Cultural Revolution. Known as a member of the reviled Gang of Four 四人帮 (Sìrénbāng), who were purged after Mao's death in 1976. Also known as 蓝苹 (Lán Píng)
Jiang Zemin 江澤民 (Jiāng Zémín) b. 1926; paramount leader of China throughout the 1990s and into the first years of the 20th century; General Secretary of the Communist Party (1989-2002), Chairman of Central Military Commission (1989-2004), and President of People's Republic (1993-2003)
Jiangxi Soviet see Chinese Soviet Republic
Jiaqing emperor 嘉慶皇帝 (Jiāqìng huángdì) r. 1796-1820; the seventh emperor of the Manchu-QIng dynasty, and the son of the Qianlong emperor.
Jinggang Mountains 井岡山 (Jǐnggāngshān) mountains between Hunan and Jiangxi provinces
Jiǎng Wěiguó 蔣緯國 1916 – 1997; adopted son of Chiang Kai-shek
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt 1866 – 1936; German military adviser, worked with Chiang Kai-shek
John Fairbank 費正清 (Fèi Zhèngqīng) 1907–1991 A prominent American historian of China; taught at Harvard University.
John Gunther (1901-1970) American journalist and author who wrote extensively about Asia and Europe. His work on the Warlord Period in China was based on first-hand account.
John Wayne 1907-1979 CE. American actor known for his roles in Westerns.
Joint enterprises business agreements in which parties contribute equity in order to develop a new entity over some specifed period of time
Joseph Stalin 1878-1953; premier of Soviet Union who held power by eliminating critics
Jurchen 女真 (nǚzhen) Inhabited Manchuria (Northeast China) until 17th century, at which point they became known as the Manchu (滿族, Manzu)
Kaiser Wilhelm II 1859-1941 CE. King of Prussia who ruled over Empire of Germany and Kingdom of Prussia from 1888 to 1918.
Kang Youwei 康有為 (Kāng Yǒuwéi) 1858-1927 CE. One of the most influential Chinese thinkers of the late 19th Century. Known for his views on constitutional monarchy, he played a major role in the failed Hundred Days Reform under the Guangxu Emperor. Kang is known for his utopian work, Datong, 大同 (Dàtóng), and a book on Confucius' progressive vision of society, Confucius as Reformer (Kongzi Gaizhi Kao).
Kangxi Emperor 康熙皇帝 (Kāngxī huángdì) 1654-1722 CE. He reigned China for more than sixty years, solidified the rule of the empire and created an age of prosperity.
Karl Marx 1818 – 1883; political theorist and economist who came up with an influential theory of the evolution of society and forecasted a communist future of the dictator of the proletariat
Kowtow 磕頭 (Kētóu) A ritual custom of bowing on the knees and "knocking one's head" on the ground in respect of one's superior.
Koxinga 鄭成功 (Zhèng Chénggōng) 1624-1662 CE. He was a Ming loyalist who resisted Manchu's conquest of China after the fall of the Ming dynasty. He took over Taiwan to support his campain against the Qing dynasty.
Kublai Khan 忽必烈汗 (Hū Bì Liè Hàn) 1260-1294 CE. Grandson of Chinggis Khan who conquered the Song and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271.
Kunshan 昆山 (Kūnshān) a satellite city in Suzhou, regarded one of the most economically prosperous and affluent cities in all of modern China
Kuomintang 國民黨 (Guómíndǎng) Nationalist Party (1919- the present) political party founded by Sun Yat-sen that took over control of China in 1927 and lost to the Chinese Communists in 1949. The KMT took over Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War and is now one of two major parties in Taiwan.
Lei Feng 雷鋒 (Léifēng) (1940-1962) a People's Liberation Army soldier whose diaries were discovered and perhaps written posthumously, leading to the CCP's creation of the cult of Lei Feng.
Li Hongzhang 李鴻章 (Lihóngzhāng) (1823-1901) famous Chinese official and a general of the Anhui provincial army in the Late Qing period who was responsible for crushing the Taiping rebels and implementing the modernization efforts of the Qing.
Li Zicheng 李自成 (Lǐ Zìchéng) 1606-1645 CE. A peasant rebellion leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty and established a short-lived Shun dynasty.
Lin Zexu 林則徐 (Lín Zéxú) 1785-1850; A Chinese scholar and official, commisioned by the Guangxu emperor to put an end to the opium trade in Canton; also known as "commisioner Lin"
Ling Biao 林彪 (Lín Biāo) (1907-1971) Chinese Communist general who became the successor to Mao until his death in an unexplained plane crash in 1971
Literary Inquisition 1770s It was imposed by Qianlong emperor who intended to purge anti-Manchu texts by burning and surppressing "dangerous" works.
Little Red Book/Quotations from Chairman Mao 毛主席语录 (Máo Zhǔxí Yǔlù) A collection of Mao's speeches and writings, which became the most widely sold book in the Cultural Revolution period in China and also gained popularity in the world among students and radicals
Liu Bang 劉邦 (Liú Bāng) 247-195 BCE. Posthumous name Gaozu 高祖. Originally from a modest 
background, he became the founder of the Han Dynasty by defeating his 
main rival, Xiang Yu, reunifying China.
Long March 紅軍長征 (Hóngjūn Chángzhēng) 1934-?; An exodus of the red army of Mao Zedong from their headquarters in Jiangxi, after they escaped the encirclement campaigns of Chiang Kai-shek; about 100,000 began the march, but only 8,000 survived and reached Shanxi to set up a new headquarters.
Lord George Macartney 1737-1806 CE. He was an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He led the Macartney Embassy to Beijing in 1792 with a large British delegation
Lu Guanqiu 鲁冠球 (Lǔ Guānqiú) Chairman of Wanxiang Group 萬向集團(Wàn xiàng jítuán)
Lu Xun 魯迅 (Lǔxùn) 1881-1936 CE. Often called the most influential writer in modern China, Lu Xun was among the first to employ vernacular Chinese, "baihua" 白話 (báihuà), in his writing. His short fiction, "The Diary of a Madman," 狂人日記 (Kuángrén Rìjì), published in 1918, was hailed as the first and best example of new literature in China. At times portrayed as an ardent Communist revolutionary, and at others as an advocate for cosmopolitanism and China's modernization, Lu Xun's legacy for modern China is still under debate.
Lǐ Dàzhāo 李大釗 1888-1927; one of the original founders of communist party in China
Macao 澳門 (Àomén) Southern Chinese territory that was colonized by the Portuguese in the mid-16th century
Manchuria 滿洲 (Mǎnzhōu) Historical name for the geographical region in Northeast Asia that was 
home to the Xianbei (鮮卑, Xianbei), Jurchen (女真, Nüzhen), Khitan (契丹, 
Qidan), and Manchu (滿族). Comprised, at various points in history, the 
three provinces of Heilongjiang (黑龍江, Heilongjiang), Jilin (吉林, Jilin), 
and Liaoning (遼寧, Liaoning) in Northeast China (華北, Huabei); and parts 
of Inner Mongolia (內蒙古, Nei Menggu); parts of the Primorshy Krai, 
Khabarovsk Krai, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Amur Oblast in Russia. It is the birthplace of the Jurchens who twice invaded China and founded dynasties, the Jin and the Qing. The region became a puppet regime under the Japanese from 1932 to 1945.
Manchus 滿人 (Mǎn rén) A group of indigenous people from Northeast of China, decended from the Jurchens 女真 (Nǚzhēn). Who founded the Jin Dynasty. The Manchus ruled the Qing Empire from 1644 to 1911.
Manchus 滿族 (Mǎnzú) Tungusic people originating in Manchuria (see "Manchuria"); descendents 
of the Jurchen people (see "Jurchens") and founding rulers of QIng 
Dynasty (清, Qing, 1644-1912 CE)
Mao Zedong 毛澤東 (Máozédōng) 1893-1976 CE. Leader of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) est. 1861 (opened 1865); Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Max Hermann Bauer 1869 – 1929; German military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek
May Fourth Movement 五四運動 (Wǔsì Yùndòng) 1919 CE. The May Fourth Movement began as an anti-imperialist movement in 1919, following the loss of Shandong to Japan in the Versailles Peace Conference. The movement included not only students but also businessmen and workers in the cities. The movement also expanded from an intellectual, counter-cultural movement, advocating iconoclasm against traditional Chinese values and the embrace of modern, Western ideas, to larger political and reformist movements, in part leading to the rapid recruitment of large numbers of reform-mind youth to join the Communist and Nationalist parties in China.
Mikhail Markovich Borodin 1884 –1951; Comintern agent who helped in the first communist-nationalist alliance in China
Ming Dynasty 明 (Míng) 1368-1644 CE; the last unified empire ruled by Han Chinese. It succeded 
the Yuan Dynasty and was followed by the Qing Dynasty (1664- 1911 CE).
Ming Taizu 明太祖 (Míng Taìzǔ) 1328-1398 CE. Better known by his imperial temple name, Taizu, Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋 was the founder of the 
Ming dynasty.
Mongol Empire 蒙古帝國 (Ménggǔ dìguó) 1206-1368 CE. Great Mongolian Nation (Ikh Mongol Uls)
Mongols 蒙古人 (Ménggǔ rén) Inner Asian people sharing a common language and existing primarily as various tribes in the early 12th Century, but unified under the Mongol Empire of Temüjin (Chinggis Khan) in the late 12th Century and early 13th Century. Founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Mongols 蒙古族 (Ménggǔ zú) (1) Inner Asian people sharing a common language and existing primarily 
as various tribes in the early 12th Century, but unified under the 
Mongol Empire of Temüjin (Chinggis Khan) in the late 12th Century and 
early 13th Century. (2) First of the four ethnic categories under the 
Yuan Ethnic Hierearchy System (see "Yuan Ethnic Hierarchy System")
Máo Zédōng 毛澤東 1893-1976 CE. Leader of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.
Nanjing Decade 南京十年 (Nánjīng shí nián) 1927-1937; decade when Chiang Kai-shek ruled from Nanjing as capitol
Nanjing Massacre 南京大屠殺 (Nánjīng dàtúshā) 12.1937-1.1938. Also known as "Rape of Nanking"
Nanjing 南京 (Nánjīng) Capital of Jiangsu Province (江蘇省, Jiangsu sheng) in eastern China; located in lower Yangtze River drainage basin. Capital of Six Dynasties (六朝, Liu Chao, 222-589 CE); Southern Tang (南唐, Nan Tang or 大唐, Da Tang, 937-975 CE), Ming Dynasty (明朝, Ming Chao, 1368-1644 CE), Taiping Tianguo period (太平天國, Taiping Tianguo, 1853-1864), Republic of China (中華民國, Zhonghua Minguo, 1912 and 1927-1937, 1946-1949)
National Assembly 國民大會 (Guómín Dàhuì) 1910 CE. Representative body established by the Qing Dynasty during its New Policy reforms period for local representation in the reformed Qing government. When the National Assembly finally met in Peking in 1910, it aimed to constitute a new government no longer beholden to the Qing.
National Central University (NCU) 國立中央大學 Guólì zhōngyāng dàxué est. 1915; Taiwan
National Resources Commission (NRC) 國家資源委員會 (guójiā zīyuán wěiyuánhuì) bureaucratic committee shaped under Chiang Kai-shek for overseeing state-owned sector, especially mining
Nationalist Party/Guomindang (GMD/KMT) 國民黨 (Guómíndǎng) (1919- the present) political party founded by Sun Yat-sen that took over control of China in 1927 and lost to the Chinese Communists in 1949. The GMD took over Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War and is now one of two major parties in Taiwan. see "Kuomintang"
Nationalist-Communist Alliance 1924-1927; the first attempt of the communists and Nationalists to ally in resistance against the Japanese
New Army 新軍 (Xīn jūn) Modern national military established by the Qing state in early 20th Century. The army was in part responsible for the down fall of the Qing as the new army no longer owed its allegiance to the Qing civilian bureaucracy.
New Culture Movement 新文化運動 (Xīn Wénhuà Yùndòng) An intellectual movement from the 1910s in China which attacked the Confucian tradition and sought the creation of a new Chinese culture. Thinkers and reformers, including Hu Shih 胡適 (Hú Shì), Chen Duxiu 陳獨秀 (Chén Dúxiù), and Lu Xun 魯迅 (Lǔxùn), advocated the use of bai hua 白話 (báihuà), or vernacular Chinese, instead of Classical Chinese, in writing. These reformers were convinced that in order to create a new Chinese culture, they had to create a new Chinese language.
New Life Movement New Life Movement 新生活運動; (Xīn Shēnghuó Yùndòng) Began in 1934, the movement was an attempt by Jiang Jieshi to militarize the morals of the people by combining a new fascist, militarist ethic of obedience, loyalty, and the cult of the Leader with ancient Confucian values.
neìluàn waìhuàn (內亂外患) Disasters within and without. (Literally: Internal disorder, external disasters).
Nien Rebellion 捻軍起義 (niǎn jūn qǐ yì) 1851 - 1868; an armed rebellion in northern China roughly contemporaneous with the Taiping Rebellion in the south
Northeastern China 東北 (Dōngbeǐ) Northeastern China. It is the geographical region of Manchuria during the Qing dynasty. Today it consists of three provinces: Heilong jiang, Liaoning and Jilin.
Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yapian Zhanzheng) (1839-1842) a war between the British and the Manchu Qing state triggered by disputes surrounding the Chinese ban on sale of opium.
Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn zhànzhēng) 1839–1842; The war fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on international matters such as trade and diplomatic relationships.
Opium War 鴉片戰爭 (Yāpiàn Zhànzhēng) 1839–1842 In Britain, commercial interests pushed for war with China, in response to Lin Zexu's policies on the opium trade.
Outer Zone Part of the Chinese world view: consisting of the ‘outer barbarians’ at further distance, including eventually Japan and other states of Southeast Asian and (in theory) Europe, which were supposed to send tribute when trading.
Pearl Harbor, attack on 偷襲珍珠港 (tōuxí zhēnzhūgǎng) December 7, 1941; the Japanese military aggression that marked the official beginning of US direct military involvement in World War II.
peasantry 農民 (nóngmín ) farmers; taken by Mao Zedong to replace the role of the proletariat in orthodox Soviet communist doctrine
Peking Union Medical School 北京協和醫學院 (Běijīng Xiéhé Yīxuéyuàn) Selective Chinese medical college founded in 1906 by US and UK missionaries and funded by Rockefeller Foundation.
Peking 北京 (Beǐjīng) The Capital of the Qing 清 Empire
People's Libration Army 中國人民解放軍 (Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn) (1927-present) military under the control of the Chinese Communist Party
Peter Palchinsky 1875-1929; a Russian intellectual who argued that technology was more important for building a modern state than theoretical communisty ideology
Physiographic macroregions Nine geographic regions of China (Northeast China, North China, Northwest China, Upper Yangtze, Middle Yangtze, Lower Yangtze, Southeast Coast, Lingnan, and Yungui) that constitute major areas of movement and local life.
Preamble to the Constitution A short introduction to the Articles of the United States Constitution. The Preamble seeks to define the function and the limits of the Constitution.
proletariat the collective working or laboring class in a capitalist society
proletariat in socialist terminology, the revolutionary social class of workers in the capitalist state who will prevail over the bourgeoisie
Pu Yi 溥儀 (Pǔyí) 1906-1967 CE. Last Emperor of China. Abdicated in 1912 and became the emperor of the puppet state Manchukuo from 1934-1945.
Qianlong Emperor 乾隆皇帝 (Qiánlóng huángdì) 1711-1799 CE.
Qin 秦 (Qín) 221 BCE-210 BCE. First dynasty to unify imperial China. Founded by the First Emperor (Shǐhuángdì).
Qing 清 (Qīng) 1636-1911 CE. It took Beijing in 1644, and from then on established a great empire which ruled China for about three centuries. It was the last imperial dynasty of China.
Queue 辮子 (Biànzi) The haircut mandated by the Manchu Qing dynasty designed to signify Qing dominance; all males were required to wear a queue
red army 紅軍 (hóngjūn) army of communists organized under Mao Zedong, which began as around 10,000 soldiers but at its height reached about 300,000
Red Detachment of Women 红色娘子军 ( Hóngsè Niángzǐjūn) Originally a play, in 1965 Jiang Qing transformed the Red Detachment of Women into one of the most popular ballet and film productions during the Cultural Revolution. The Red Detachment of Women was also one of the only eight theatrical productions permitted during this period, called one of the eight model plays, 樣板戲 ( yàngbǎnxì).
Red Lantern 红灯记 (Hóngdēng Jì) One of the only eight theatrical productions permitted during this period, called one of the eight model plays, 樣板戲 ( yàngbǎnxì), the opera, Red Lantern, focuses on the Communist underground activities against the Japanese in the 1930s.
Report of an Investigation into the Peasant Movement in Hunan 湖南農民運動考察報告 (Húnán nóngmín yùndòng kǎochá bàogào) completed March, 1927; early work by Mao Zedong investigating the peasant revolutionary force in Hunan
Republican China 中華民國 (Zhōnghuá mínguó) 1912-1949; Republican China attempted to rule China as a constitutional republic, although in fact it was divided by local warlords; later it was secured by the Kuomintang, who retreated to Taiwan in 1949, after the victory of communist forces.
Requisitioning official order of supply (of some material) for public use
Revolution of 1911 It overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
Richard Nixon 1913-1994 CE. President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who was credited for the normalization of relationship between China and the US.
Ryukyu 琉球國 (Liúqiú guó) An independent kingdom that ruled the Ryukyu islands south of Japan.
Second United Front the temporary alliance between Chinese communists and Nationalists made to resist the Japanese
Self-Strengthening Movement 自強 (zìqiáng) The movement focuses on “zhongxue wei ti...” which is Chinese learning for the foundation, and western learning for practical purposes, to appropriate Western technology while saving the essence of the Confucian state.
Sendero Luminoso [Shining Path] 光輝道路 (Guānghuī Dàolù) Communist Party of Perú (Partido Comunista del Perú). Maoist guerilla organization in Perú active 1980-present. Not to be confused with other Communist organizations in Perú.
Shanghai Jiaotong University 上海交通大學 (Shànghǎi jiāotōng dàxué) Established: 1896
Shanhaiguan 山海關 (Shānhaǐguān) It is located at the juncture of Hebei and Liaoning Provinces, being regarded as the starting point of the Ming Great Wall. It is a critical geographical site where millitary forces competed for in history.
Shun Dynasty 順 (Shùn) 1643-1644 CE. The brief dynasty established by Li Zicheng after his army overthrew the Ming dynasty.
Shunzhi Emperor 順治皇帝 (Shùnzhì huángdì) 1638-1661 CE. The second emperor of the Qing dynasty. He was, however, the first Qing emperor to rule over the Qing empire.
Sichuan 四川 (Sìchuān) Province in western China comprising the Sichuan Basin (四川盆地, Sichuan pendi) in the east and the Hengduan Mountains (橫斷山脈, Hengduan shanmai) in the west
Sinic Zone Part of the Chinese world view: the most nearby and culturally similar tributaries, Korea, Vietnam, Ryukus, and
(at brief times) Japan
Six Dynasties 六朝 (Liùcháo) 220-589 CE. Commonly used to refer to the dynasties established in the South after the fall of the Han, including the Wu (吳), Jin (晋), Liu-Song 劉宋, Qi 齊, Liang 粱, and Chen 陳. Also known as the Period of Division.
Socialized economy 社會化經濟 (Shèhuìhuà jīngjì) economy in which the means of productions are socially-owned
Soviet Union 蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯盟 (Sūwéi'āi shèhuìzhǔyì gònghéguó liánměng) Also USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics); frequently abbreviated 蘇聯 (Sulian) in Chinese. 1922-1991. Socialist state governened by Communist Party; consisted of multiple subnational republics.
Stillwell, Joseph W. 1883-1946. Four-star General in US Army serving in China Burma India Theater.
Stuart, John Leighton 司徒雷登 (Sītú Léidēng) 1876-1962. Missionary, academic, first President of Yenching University, US Ambassador to China 1946-1949.
Su Shi 蘇軾 (Sū Shì) 1037-1101 CE. Also known as Su Dongpo (東坡, Dongpo). Polymath (poet, calligrapher, essayist, commentator, art critic) and statesman in Song Dynasty; opponent of Wang Anshi's New Laws and defender of the national literary examinations
Sui 隋 (Suí)Dynasty 589-618 CE. dynasty that reunified China after the period of division and before the Tang.
Sun Yat-sen 孫中山 (Sūn Zhōngshān)

1866-1925; considered by many as the founding father of the Chinese nation; created plans to build infrastructure and engineer a modern Chinese state. First President of Nationalist China (1912.1-1912.3), Premier of Kuomintang (1912-1925)
Sunzi The Art of War 孫子兵法 (Sūnzĭ bīngfǎ) an ancient philosophical work on military strategy, advocating subtle and sometimes indirect means of winning victory over enemies
Sunzi 孫子 (Sūnzǐ) trad. 6th c. BCE, a legendary military strategist and the text attributed to him, _The Art of War_ (孫子兵法Sūn Zǐ Bīng Fǎ) has become a global best-seller in the 20th century.
Sòng 宋 960–1279; Chinese dynasty led by the Zhào 趙 dynastic family, divided between Northern (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279)
Sūn Zhōngshān 孫中山 1866 – 1925; known as the father of modern China, founder of the Republic of China, and innovator in state- and city-planning in China
Taiping Rebellion 太平叛亂 (Taìpíng pànluàn) or 太平起義 (Tàipíng qǐyì) 1850-1864 CE. A great peasant uprising that that spread over sixteen provinces and led to the destruction of six hundred cities and the deaths of twenty million people led by the charismatic religious leader Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan 台灣 (Táiwān) Island off the coast of mainland China in the southeast; Koxinga continued his campaign against the Qing in the mid-17th century, and later Chiang Kai-shek continued the Republic of China there where it still exists today; also known as Isle Formaosa "the beautiful island," the name it was given by Dutch traders.
Tang 唐 (Táng) Dynasty 618-907 CE. An expansive and cosmopolitan empire.
Technische Hochschule Berlin est. 1879; Berlin, Germany
Temple of Heaven 天壇 (Tiāntán) Imperial Temple located Beijing, built in the Ming Dynasty. Used by the emperor to worship the god of heaven
The "Great Qing Empire" 大清國 (Dà Qīng guó) 1636-1911 CE. It took Beijing in 1644, and from then on established a great empire which ruled China for about three centuries. It was the last imperial dynasty of China.
The An Lushan Rebellion 安史之亂 (Ān Shǐ zhī luàn) (755-762 CE) Rebellion led by An Lushan; resulted in the flight of Emperor Xuanzong from Chang'an; ended in 762 CE, but resulted in a weakened central power of later Tang emperors.
The First Han Emperor 漢高祖 (Hàn Gāozǔ) 劉邦 (Liúbāng) (r. 202 BCE-195 BCE). d.256BCE-195BCE, posthumous name Gaozu 高祖. Originally from a modest background, he became the founder of the Han Dynasty by defeating his main rival, Xiang Yu, reunifying China.
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) 香港科技大學 (Xiānggǎng Kējì Dàxué) est. 1991; Hong Kong, China
The International Development of China 國際共同開發中國經濟計劃 (guójì gòngtóng kāifā zhōngguó jīngjì jìhuà) Monograph written by Sun Yat-sen, outlining plans for engineering the modern city with 16 maps within the text and a folding map at end.
The People's Republic of China 中華人民共和國 (Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghé guó) 1949- Present. After the Communist Party's victory in the civil war, Mao
Zedong and other leaders of the Communist Party built a new China 
according to their socialist and egalitarian visions.
The shi 士 (shì) The "scholar official" class, the educated elite of China who particpated in cultural and literary production throughout Chinese history
The Silk Road 絲綢之路 (Sīchóu zhīlù) Trade routes across Central Asia from China to Europe. Already in existence during the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), it served as a way to connect the East and the West over land at various points in history. Named for the lucrative Silk trade that was carried out through the routes starting in the Han Dynasty.
The Taipings/Kingdom of Heavenly Peace 太平天國 (Tàipíng Tiānguó) (1850-1864) sectarian group that led the largest rebellion in the Qing and who had establshed their own regime, the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace, in Nanjing in 1953.
The War of the Three Feudatories 三藩之亂 (Sān fān zhī luàn) 1673-1681 CE. Kangxi Emperor declared war against the three feudatories in southeast China. Eventually, he abolished the system of feudatory.
Theses on Feuerbach An early work by Karl Marx written before the Communist Manifesto
Three Gorges Dam 三峽大壩 (sānxiá dàbà) a major dam and one of the world's largest power stations located along the Yangzi in Hubei and completed in 2012
Three Kingdoms 三國 (Sānguó) 220–280 CE. Period following the end of the Han dynasty when China was divided between the kingdoms of Wei (魏, Wèi), Shu (蜀, Shǔ), and Wu (吳, Wú).
ti yong 體用 (Tǐ yòng) ti means "the essence," and yong means "use." Late Qing reforms used the term to justify the borrowing of western technology for practice purposes and the preservation of the Chinese traditional values and worldview.
Tiananmen Square Incident 六四事件 (Liùsì shìjiàn) (April - June 1989) Largest popular protest movement in Chinese history, to advocate democratic reforms and protections of individual liberty. The movement resulted in the military crackdown and the massacre of countless individuals in June of 1989.
Tianjin Massacre 天津教案 (Tiānjīn jiàoàn) 1870. Rumors had spread about Catholic church activities (especially their dealing with orphans) which led to riots against the french. The riot resulted in a number of foreign buildings being burnt as well as Priests, nuns, Chinese christians and French officials being killed.
Tianxia 天下 (Tiānxià) "all under heaven", was sometimes used to mean the whole world, often refers to the Chinese Empire
Tianzi 天子 (Tiānzǐ) "son of heaven", the Emperor
Tibet 西藏 (Xīzàng) Plateau west of China bordering the Himalayas to the South.
Tien Yow Jeme 詹天佑 (Zhān Tiānyòu) 1861-1919; China's first engineer, began as a railroad worker and founding a society of Chinese engineers
Tongji University 同濟大學 (Tóngjì Dàxué) est. 1907; Shanghai, CHina
Treaty of Nanjing 南京條約 (Nánjīng tiáoyuē) 1842 CE when the British took up position outside Nanjing, the Chinese were forced to sue for peace, resulting in this treaty, which is considered the first in what came to be called the "unequal treaties." The treaty called for the an indemnity of 21 million ounces of silver, abolishing the Co-hong, the opening of Five treaty ports (guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai), a decrease in tariff and 'extraterritorality' for British citizens. one of the so-called "unequal treaties" imposed by foreign powers in Qing China; the Treaty of Nanking was levied against the Qing after its humiliation at the end of the Opium War, and it granted special "extra-territorial" status to Westerners in China.
Truman, Harry S. 1884-1972. US Senator from Missouri (1935-1945), US Vice President (1945), and US President (1945-1953).
trunk road a major, strategic road, connecting major destinations together
Tsinghua University 清華大學 (Qīnghuá dàxué) est. 1911; Beijing, China
Táng 唐朝 618-907; Tang dynasty of the ruling house of the Li 李 family, which probably was of Turkic origin.
Uighur People 維吾爾 (Weíwú'ěr) Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia
Unequal Treaties 不平等條約 (bùpíngděng tiáoyuē) 19th and early 20th century treaties signed by Qing China and Tokugawa Japan (and later by Chosŏn Korea) after military defeat by foreign powers or under threat of military action.
Vietnam War of 1788 1788. The war fought between the Qing empire and Vietnam. The Qing lost in the war, which was a great humiliation for the court.
VJ Day "Victory over Japan Day." Observed on August 15 in the UK; on September 2 in the US.
Vladimir Lenin 1870-1924; early communist political theorist and premier of the Soviet Union until his death
W. H. Auden 1907-73; Anglo-American poet, whose poetry touched on the events of the Nanjing massacre
Wanxiang Group 万向集团 (Wànxiàng Jítuán) China's largest automobile parts manufacturer and is now a global company with ownership of at least fifteen North American firms.
Warlord 軍閥 (Jūnfá) a warlord was a commander of a personal army, ruling or seeking to rule territory, acting more or less independently, who decided his own policies in light of own interest and goals
wen hua 文化 (Wénhuà) Chinese term for culture, which has a broad spectrum of meanings. It can mean the arts, such as literature, theatre, poetry, and film. Wen hua can also signify the ethical and moral make-up of a people.
Weng Wenhao 翁文灝 (Wēng Wénhào) 1889–1971; premier of the Republic of China (1948-71)
Wherry, Kenneth Spicer 1892-1951. Nebraska politician and US Senator 1942-1951. Advocated US economic aid for Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government and for the postwar rebuilding of China
White Terror April 12, 1927; Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, arresting and executing them in order to suppress the communist movement in China
working class see proletariat
Wu Sangui 吳三桂 (Wú Sānguì) 1612-1678 CE. A Ming general on the northeastern frontier. After the last Ming emperor hanged himself in Beijing, Wu Sangui opened Shanhaiguan and let the Qing troops into the capital to chase out the military force of Li Zicheng.
Wuxi 無錫 (Wúxī) City in Southern Jiangsu Province (江蘇省, Jiangsu sheng).
Xi Jinping 習近平 (Xí Jìnpíng) b. 1953; current paramount leader of PRC; General Secretary of CPC (2012-), President of the PRC (2013-) and Chairman of the CMC (2012-)
Xianfeng 咸豐 (Xiánfēng) 1831-1861 CE. Emperor of Qing Dynasty. Presided over the two Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.
Xiang Army 湘軍 (Xiāng Jūn) Zeng Guofan (曾國藩) lead this local army created from existing regional and village militia forces tuanlian (團練) to contain the Taiping rebellion in China (1850 to 1864).
Xiang/Huai Army 湘軍/淮 軍 (Xiāngjūn/huái jūn) Provincial armies influential in the defeat of the Taipings. Zeng Guofan was the head of the Xiang Army, and Li Hongzhang was the head of the Huai Army.
Xinhai Revolution 辛亥革命 (Xīnhài gémìng) 1911; the revolution that finally overthrew the Qing dynasty and forced the abdication of the last emperor Puyi
Xiongnu 匈奴 (Xiōngnú) Nomadic people of the north-western frontier
Yellow River Conservancy A government agency undertaken by the Qing government to regulate the Yellow River and the basin areas.
Yenching University 燕京大學 (Yānjīng Dàxué) 1919-1949. Amalgamation of three existing Christian colleges in Beijing: (1) Huiwen University [滙文大學, Huiwen Daxue], (2) North China Harmony Women's University [華北協和女子大學, Huabei Xiehe Nüzi Daxue], (3) Tongzhou Harmony University [通州協和大學, Tonzhou Xiehe Daxue]. In 1949, arts and sciences portions merged with Peiking University (北京大學); engineering faculty merged
YMCA 基督教青年會 (Jīdūjiào qīngnián huì) Young Men's Christian Association. Worldwide organization focusing on putting Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body, mind, and spirit"
Yu Zhengsheng 俞正聲 (Yúzhèngshēng) b. 1945; politician and Chairman of the Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China
Yuan Dynasty 元 (Yuán) 1271-1368 CE. Also known as the Great Yuan (大元, Dayuan). It was the 
first empire created by non-Han people that unified and ruled China.
Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 (Yuán Shìkaǐ) 1859-1915 CE. He was an influential figure at the end of the Qing dynasty, and was elected as the first official president of the Republic of China. Very briefly, he tried to restore monarchy in China but failed.
Yung Wing 容閎 (Róng Hóng) 1828-1912 CE. Yung Wing, the first Chinese graduate of an American University, implemented the first full educational mission aboard, in the 1870's, consisting of 120 Chinese students -- boys 12-14 years old -- to Hartford, Connecticut.
Zeng Guofan 曾國藩 (Zēng Guófān) (1811-1872)famous Chinese official and a general of the provincial army of the Zhejiang region during the Taiping Rebellion. Known for his successful campaigns against the Taipings and his modernization reforms in the late Qing.
Zhang Deyi 張德彜 (Zhāng Déyí) 1847-1918 CE. One of the first Chinese students to study foreign languages in the newly established Tongwen Guan 同文馆 (Tóngwén Guǎn) and to travel abroad in 1866. He became ambassador to Great Britain in 1902.
Zhang Xun 張勳 (Zhāng Xūn) 1854 – 1923; Qing loyalist who attempted to restore the Qing dynasty in 1917 but was quickly prevented
Zhang Zongchang 張宗昌 (Zhāng Zōngchāng) (1881-1932) called the "Dog Meat General" 狗肉將軍 (gǒuròu jiàngjūn), a warlord of the Shandong region, known for excessive violence and a large number of concubineswho ruthlessly dominated Shandong from 1911 until 1928.
Zhejiang 浙江 (Zhèjiāng)Province Province in eastern coastal China, known for its
Zheng He 鄭和 (Zhènghé) 1377-1431 CE. Eunuch who led a Chinese fleet into Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean in the early 15th Century during the reign of the Ming Dynasty Yongle Emperor.
Zhou Enlai 周恩來 (Zhōu Ēnlái) 1898-1976 CE. Foreign Minister and Premier of China. Perhaps the most enigmatic historical actor in the Maoist period, Zhou Enlai was a capable negotiator on foreign policy matters, a trusted top-ranking cadre under Mao, and a popular premier 總理 (Zǒnglǐ) among the Chinese people, but he was also one of the only high-ranking cadres not persecuted during the Cultural Revolution period and was sometimes accused of being Mao's henchman.
Zhu De 朱德 (Zhū Dé) 1886 –1976 One of the pioneer leaders of the CCP, a general and revolutionary.
Zhu Rongji 朱镕基 (Zhū Róngjī) b. 1928; important politician who oversaw China's rapid economic growth in the 1990s and early 21st century
“Call to Youth”《新青年·警告青年》(“Xīn qīngnián·jǐnggào qīngnián”) Xin Qingnian New Youth La Jeunesse vol. 1, no. 1, September 15, 1915
“Fifty-five Days at Peking” 1963 CE. Samuel Bronson Production film on Beijing's seige of the foreign legations, starring Charlton Heston and Ava Gardner.
大清國 (Dàqīngguó) The "Great Qing Empire" (1644-1911)